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Karakteristik Anatomi Daun Tiga Kultivar Salak Lokal [Salacca zalacca (Gaertn.) Voss] di Kabupaten Banyumas

JudulKarakteristik Anatomi Daun Tiga Kultivar Salak Lokal [Salacca zalacca (Gaertn.) Voss] di Kabupaten Banyumas
Publication TypeStudent Thesis
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsNingrum AM
AdvisorsSamiyarsih S, Abbas M
Academic DepartmentFakultas Biologi
DegreeS1
Date Published04/2015
UniversityUniversitas Jenderal Soedirman
CityPurwokerto
Thesis TypeSkripsi
Keywordsanatomi daun, anatomy of leaves, kultivar salak lokal, local salak cultivars, metode parafin, parafin method
Abstract

Salak lokal Salacca zalacca (Gaertn.) Voss merupakan tanaman asli Indonesia. Tanaman ini memiliki ragam kultivar yang dapat dibedakan berdasarkan asal daerah, warna kulit, warna daging, aroma dan rasa buah. Di kabupaten Banyumas terdapat tiga kultivar salak lokal yaitu S. Zalacca ‘Kedung Paruk’, S. Zalacca ‘Kalisube’ dan S. Zalacca ‘Candinegara’. Tanaman ini merupakan sumber kekayaan plasma nutfah yang saat ini keberadaannya hampir punah. Diperlukan penelitian mengenai karakter anatomi untuk membantu proses identifikasi dan klasifikasi serta menunjang pengembangan kultivar unggul untuk mendukung program pemuliaan tanaman salak.
Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui struktur dan karakter anatomi daun pada tiga kultivar salak lokal di Kabupaten Banyumas. Metode yang digunakan adalah survai, dengan pengambilan sampel secara Purposive Random Sampling sedangakan pembuatan preparat anatomi menggunakan metode parafin. Variabel yang diamati berupa karakter anatomi daun. Parameter yang diukur meliputi ketebalan kutikula, ketebalan mesofil, ketebalan epidermis, ukuran stomata, jumlah stomata serta jumlah trikoma. Data kemudian dianalisis secara deskriptif.
Hasil penelitian ketiga kultivar tanaman salak mempunyai struktur anatomi daun yang sama terdiri dari tiga sistem jaringan yaitu epidermis, mesofil, dan berkas pembuluh serta adanya Kristal Ca-oksalat. Perbedaannya terletak pada karakter anatomi daun berupa tebal kutikula pada ketiga kultivar salak antara ± 4,65-5,50mm. Kalisube memiliki kutikula yang paling tebal ± 5,50 mm. Tebal epidermis ketiga kultivar salak ± 11-13,75 mm. Salak Kalisube memiliki epidermis bawah paling tipis ± 11 mm. Salak Kedung Paruk memiliki mesofil paling tebal ± 133,50 mm sedangkan Candinegara memiliki mesofil paling tipis ± 115,50 mm. Kalisube memiliki jumlah rata-rata stomata terbanyak per 1 mm2 luas epidermis daun yaitu ± 28,80 stoma. Kedung Paruk memiliki jumlah rata-rata stomata paling sedikit yaitu ± 20,80 stoma. Salak Kedung Paruk dan salak Kalisube memiliki 1 trikoma per 1 mm2 luas epidermis daun, sedangkan pada salak Candinegara tidak memiliki trikoma.
 
Local Salak [Salacca zalacca (Gaertn.) Voss] is native of Indonesia. This plants has cultivars that can be distinguished based on region of origin, rind color, fruit flesh color, scent and taste of the fruit. In Banyumas regency, there are three local salak cultivars namely S. zalacca 'Kedung Paruk', S. zalacca 'Kalisube' and S. zalacca 'Candinegara'. This plant is a wealth source for the diversity of germplasm which is currently experiencing endangered existence. It is necessary to conducta research on anatomical characters to assist the identification and classification processes as well as to support the development of new superior cultivars to support salak plant breeding programs.
The aim of this study was to determine the structure and character of the leaf anatomy of three local salak cultivars in Banyumas Regency. The method used was a survey, with Purposive Random Sampling while the creation of anatomy preparations was a paraffin method. The variables were leaf anatomical characters. i.e the cuticle thickness, mesophyll thickness, epidermis thickness, stomata size, number of stomata, and trichomes. The data was then analyzed descriptively.
 
The results showed that three cultivars have the same leaf anatomy structure. The leaf anatomy structureconsisted of three tissue system there are epidermal, mesophyll, and tissue transport. The differences in the anatomical character of leaves from the three salak cultivars were the cuticle thickness between different salak cultivars were ± 4.65 to 5.50 µm. Kalisube have the thickest cuticle was ±5,50 mm.The three cultivars thick epidermal was ± 11-13,75mm.Salak Kedung Paruk with thickness of mesophyllwas± 133.50 µm while salak Candinegara with thinnest of mesophyll was ± 115.50 µm. Kalisube had the highest number of stomata per 1 mm2 unit epidermal of leaf area which were ± 28.80 stoma. Kedung Paruk had the fewest number of stomata which were ± 20.80 stoma. Trichomata on Kedung Paruk and Kalisube was the only one trichomes per 1 mm2 unit epidermal of leaf area, while the cultivars of Candinegara didn’t have not trichomes.

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