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Hubungan Filogenetik Ikan Familia Cyprinidae Dari Sungai Cijalu Kecamatan Majenang Kabupaten Cilacap

JudulHubungan Filogenetik Ikan Familia Cyprinidae Dari Sungai Cijalu Kecamatan Majenang Kabupaten Cilacap
Publication TypeStudent Thesis
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsWidiyanti MI
AdvisorsNuryanto A, Prabowo RE
DegreeS1
KeywordsCijalu River, cladogram, cyprinidae, filogenetik, kladogram, phylogenetic, Sungai Cijalu.
Abstract

Organisme yang hidup di sungai diantaranya adalah beberapa spesies ikan anggota familia Cyprinidae yang merupakan familia ikan air tawar yang jumlah anggotanya terbanyak, terdiri atas lebih kurang 220 genera dan 2.420 spesies. Akan tetapi, informasi tentang keanekaragaman ikan dari familia Cyprinidae di Sungai Cijalu belum pernah dilaporkan. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui jumlah spesies ikan dari familia Cyprinidae yang tertangkap di Sungai Cijalu dan hubungan filogenetiknya berdasarkan karakter morfologi. Materi penelitian meliputi beberapa spesies ikan anggota familia Cyprinidae yang tertangkapdi Sungai Cijalu. Metode yang digunakan adalah survey, dengan teknik pengambilan sampel yaitu clustered random sampling. Cara kerja penelitian meliputi pengambilan sampel, pengawetan sampel, serta pengamatan sampel di laboratorium,yang meliputi identifikasi, determinasi, penentuan karakter morfologi, penentuan spesies ikan dan hubungan filogenetiknya berdasarkan morfologi. Pendekatan klasik dalam filogenetik yaitu dengan menggunakan karakter morfologi. Karakter morfologi yang diamati meliputi bentuk tubuh, posisimulut, tipe sisik, spesifikasi sirip pada tubuh, panjang tubuh total, panjang baku, tinggi badan,dan lain-lain. Data yang diperoleh berupa karakter kualitatif ditransformasi menjadi data biner kuantitatif untuk dibuat tabel atau matriks. Hubungan filogenetikikan sampel dikaji berdasarkan hasil pengelompokkan dengan analisis kladistik menggunakan algoritma maximum parsimony melalui program PAUP (Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony) versi 4.0b10agar terbentuk pohon evolusi atau kladogram dan hasil disajikan dalam bentuk kladogram. Hasil pengambilan sampel diperoleh 6 spesies ikan, yaitu Puntius binotatus, Puntius microps, Osteochilus vittatus, Mystacoleucus marginatus, Labiobarbus kuhlii, dan Rasbora argyrotaenia. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa familia Cyprinidae bersifat monofiletik. Pohon filogenetik menunjukkan Osteochilus vittatusmerupakan kelompok monofiletik bersama Labiobarbus kuhlii (sister taxa) dengan nilai bootstrap 100%, nilai indeks konsistensi (CI) sebesar 0,8286 dan nilai indeks retensi (RI) sebesar 0,6471.Penelitian ini diharapkan dapat memberikan informasi tentang jumlah spesies ikan familia Cyprinidae yang tertangkap di Sungai Cijalu Kecamatan Majenang Kabupaten Cilacap serta hubungan filogenetik berdasarkan morfologinya.
 
Many species of organisms live in the rivers, incuding Cyprinidae is therichest freshwater fish family with approximately of 220 genera and 2420 species. However, information about the diversity of Cyprinidae in the Cijalu River has not been reported. Therefore, the research was conducted to determine the number of fish species on Cyprinidae ccollected at Cijalu River and their phylogenetic relationships based on their morphological characters. Materials used includes several members of the familia Cyprinidae fish species.The method used was a survey, the sampling technique was clustered random sampling. The steps of the research include sampling, sample preservation, and sample observations in the laboratory, which includes identification, determination, the determination of morphological characters, the determination of fish species and their phylogenetic relationships based on morphological characters. Several morphological characters were observed including body shape, mouth position, type of scales, fins, total length, standard length, height, etc. The obtained qualitative characters data were transformed into quantitative binary data and was presentedon tables or matrices. Phylogenetic relationships was estimated using cladistic analysis based on maximum parsimony algorithm as implemented in PAUP (Phylogenetic Analysis Using parsimony) software version 4.0b10. Phylogenetic tree was presented in a cladogram. Identification and determination process resulted on 6 fish species, namely Puntius binotatus, Puntius microps, Osteochilus vittatus, Mystacoleucus marginatus, Labiobarbus kuhlii, and Rasbora argyrotaenia. Thecladistic analysis showed that familia Cyprinidae formed a monophyletic group on the tree. Phylogenetic tree also showsthat Osteochilus vittatus formed amonophyletic group with Labiobarbus kuhlii (as sister taxa) with a bootstrap value of 100%, the value of consistency index (CI) was 0.8286and a retention index values ​​(RI) was 0.6471. This research is expected to provide information about the number of species of fish of the family Cyprinidae caught in the Cijalu River and their phylogenetic relationships based on morphological.